Lectures by Simon DeDeo (email@example.com) during the Santa Fe Institute 2012 Complex Systems Summer School, an interdisciplinary course for graduate and postdoctoral students in the mathematical, biological, cognitive and social sciences. Full bibliography at http://bit.ly/PZS22W ; comments and suggestions welcomed. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EF-1137929. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.